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Sunday 3 April 2016

2016 CAT France Thematic Intersex NGO Report

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

NGO Report to the 7th Periodic Report of France on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)

>>>  Download (PDF 3.71 MB)

  
Compiled by:
Vincent Guillot
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org

This report contains updated sections on legislation against IGM practices as a requirement under CAT and on IGM in France, an updated bibliography of human rights bodies verdicts and NGO reports, and 2 case stories of IGM survivors.
Review of France:
Tue 19 Apr 10-13h + Wed 20 Apr 15-18h  >>> Report + Unofficial Transcripts | français
The Concluding Observations are due on 13 May 2016 (or soon thereafter).

Wednesday 16 December 2015

2015 CRC Ireland Thematic Intersex NGO Report

NGO Report to the 3rd and 4th Periodic Report of Ireland on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

 
>>>  Download (PDF 3.60 MB)

   
Compiled by:
Gavan Coleman
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org

Review of Ireland: Thur 14 Jan 10-13h + Thur 14 Jan 15-18h  >>> Intersex Q&A Transcripts
The Committe issued >>> strong Concluding Observations on IGM

2015 CRC France Thematic Intersex NGO Report

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

NGO Report to the 5th Periodic Report of France on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

>>>  Download (PDF 3.41 MB)

Compiled by:
Vincent Guillot
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org

Endorsed by:
OII Francophonie

This report contains 2 case stories of IGM survivors.
Review of France:
Wed 13 Jan 15-18h + Thur 14 Jan 10-13h  >>> Intersex Q&A Transcripts
The Committe issued >>> strong Concluding Observations on IGM

Sunday 8 November 2015

2015 CAT Hong Kong+China Intersex NGO Report

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

2015 CAT Hong Kong + China NGO Report BBKCI Intersex

NGO Report to the 5th Periodic Report of Hong Kong + China on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)

>>> Download Open Version English (PDF 102 kb)

Compiled by:
Beyond the Boundary - Knowing and Concerns Intersex (BBKCI)

CAT Chronology Hong Kong + China 2015:
Thematic NGO Report by BBKCI (see above)

>>>
Monday, 16 November 2015: Thematic Intersex Briefing during CAT Meeting with Hong Kong and Chinese NGOs (private)
>>>
Tuesday 17–18 November 10–13h CET + Wedneday 18 November 15–18h CET: Review of Hong Kong + China (public), see transcript: The state party flat-out denied any responsability while invoking "leadership in LGBTI issues".
>>>
The Committee issued Concluding Observations for Hong Kong, citicising IGM practices as a "inhuman treatment" in breach of the Convention against Torture.
>>> In its 56th Session the Committee also examined IGM practices in Austria and in Denmark, again issuing Concluding Observations.
This marked the very first time that IGM Practices were examined in more than one Country in a single Session of any UN Committee!

Saturday 7 November 2015

2015 CAT Austria Thematic Intersex NGO Report

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

2015 CAT Austria NGO Report VIMÖ StopIGM.org Intersex

NGO Report to the 6th Periodic Report of Austria on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)

>>>  Blacked Out English (PDF 2.75 MB)
>>>  Unredacted English (PDF 3.33 MB)

Compiled by:
Verein Intersexueller Menschen Österreich VIMÖ
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org

CAT Chronology Austria 2015:
Thematic NGO Report by VIMÖ / StopIGM.org (see above),
submitted on Intersex Awareness Day, 26.10.2015.

In the Blacked Out Edition all photos from medical textbooks are blacked out.
>>>
Wednesday, 11 November 2015: Thematic Intersex Briefing during CAT Meeting with Austrian NGOs (private)
>>>
Thursday, 12 November 10–13h CET + Friday 13 November 15–18h CET: Review of Austria (public), see transcript: The state party flat-out denied any responsability while invoking "leadership in transgender-intersex issues".
>>> The Committee issued strong Concluding Observations for Austria, citicising IGM practices as a "inhuman treatment" in breach of the Convention against Torture.
>>> In its 56th Session the Committee also examined IGM practices
in Denmark and in Hong Kong, again issuing Concluding Observations. This marked the very first time that IGM Practices were examined in more than one Country in a single Session of any UN Committee!

2015 CAT Denmark Intersex NGO Report

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

2015 CAT Denmark NGO Report Intersex IGM

NGO Report to the 6th and 7th Periodic Report of Denmark on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)

>>> Download as a PDF (614 kb)

Compiled by:
Ditte Dyreborg
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org

CAT Chronology Denmark 2015:
Thematic NGO Report by Ditte Dyreborg / StopIGM.org (see above),
submitted on Intersex Awareness Day, 26.10.2015.
This report only contains information specific to Denmark and complements the thematic NGO report for Austria also submitted for the 56th session containing the general information on Intersex, IGM Practices and why they are in breach of the Convention against Torture.
>>> Friday, 13 November 2015: Thematic Intersex Briefing during CAT Meeting with Danish NGOs (private)
>>> Monday, 16 November 10–13h CET + Tuesday, 17 November 15–18h CET: Review of Denmark (public), see transcript: The state party flat-out denied any responsability, even plainy ignoring the follow-up question while invoking "leadership in LGBTI rights".
>>> The Committee issued strong Concluding Observations for Denmark, citicising IGM practices as a "inhuman treatment" in breach of the Convention against Torture.
>>> In its 56th Session the Committee also examined IGM practices in Austria and
in Hong Kong, again issuing Concluding Observations. This marked the very first time that IGM Practices were examined in more than one Country in a single Session of any UN Committee! 

Saturday 29 August 2015

Thematic Intersex NGO Report CRC 2014

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

NGO Report to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Periodic Report of Switzerland on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

>>> Download as PDF (3.65 MB)

Compiled by:

Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org
Intersex.ch
SI Selbsthilfe Intersexualität

Submitted in April 2014.

CRC Chronology 2014–2015:
Above thematic report elaborates on the >>> para on IGMs in the Collective Swiss CRC NGO Report (April 2014).
>>> The Pre-Session on Switzerland took place in June 2014.
>>> Additional Collective NGO submission for the List of Issues (LoI) (PDF, June 2014), mentions intersex only under LGBTI discrimination ("to provide information on the situation of homosexual, bi-sexual, transgender and intersex children and youth", p. 3).
>>> List of Issues (LoI) for Switzerland (PDF) by CRC, mentions Intersex only under discrimination ("stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) children and adolescents", p. 2).
>>> Collective NGO Submission re: LoI, incl para on IGM (p. 10) (4 December 2014)
>>> Thematic NGO submission re: LoI (PDF 166kb, 5 December 2014)
>>> Review of Switzerland  + Briefing "IGMs on a Global Scale" (21.-22.01.2015)
>>> Transcript of Intersex Q&A during the Review (21.-22.01.2015)
>>>
"Harmful Practice" + "Violence": The Concluding Observations (04.02.2015)

Table of Contents:

Continue reading...

Saturday 22 August 2015

IGM as a Harmful Practice: 2015 UN-CRC Briefing

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

Intersex Genital Mutilations On A Global Scale
• IGM: A Survivor's Perspective • Intersex Movement History
• What are Variations of Sex Anatomy?  • What are IGM Practices?
• IGM and Human Rights  • Conclusion: IGM as a Harmful Practice
>>> Download PDF (3.14 MB)     >>> Table of Contents

>>> CRC Chronology 2014/15 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

Wednesday 12 August 2015

2015 CAT Swiss Thematic Intersex NGO Report

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

NGO Report to the 7th Periodic Report of Switzerland on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)

>>> Download as PDF (3.46 MB)

Compiled by:
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org
Intersex.ch
SI Selbsthilfe Intersexualität

CAT Chronology Switzerland 2015:
Thematic NGO Report by Zwischengeschlecht.org (see above)
>>> Thematic Intersex Briefing during Meeting with Swiss NGOs (30.07.2015)
>>>
Questions on IGM during Review of Switzerland (03.-04.08.2015) 
>>> The Concluding Observations include strong recommendations for intersex! (14.08.2015) 

Saturday 1 August 2015

IGM as Torture or CIDT: 2015 UN-CAT Briefing

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

IGM as Torture or CIDT: 2015 UN-CAT Briefing
 1.  Personal Testimony – A Survivor's Perspective
 2.  IGM Practices as Torture or Cruel, Inhuman or
 Degrating Treatment (CIDT)       3.  Recommendations
>>> Download PDF (1.7 MB)   >>> Text only DOC 

5 Minute Presentation by Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org during the NGO Meeting for the Review of Switzerland, Geneva 30.07.2015.

>>> CAT Chronology 2015 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

Sunday 19 April 2015

Thematic Intersex NGO Report CRPD 2015

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

NGO Report to the 1st Periodic Report of Germany on the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD)

  
compiled by:
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org

Download:
>>> PDF (2.13 MB)   >>> HTML (1 MB)  
>>> DOC (1.06 MB)   >>> DOCX (1 MB)

CRPD Chronology 2013–2015:
2013: German Institute for Human Rights (GIHR) (PDF) para 2b
          BRK-Allianz collective NGO Report (PDF) p. 36-37
2014: Question 12 List of Issues (LoI)
          Answer 12 Germany to LoI
          German Institute for Human Rights (GIHR) (PDF) p. 6
2015: BRK-Allianz Comment Answers LoI (DOC)
          German Institute for Human Rights (GIHR) (PDF) p. 15
          Thematic NGO Report by Zwischengeschlecht.org (see above)
          Report from Geneva + Concluding Observations criticising IGM Practices

Saturday 17 January 2015

Collective Intersex NGO Submission CRC LoI 2014

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

>>> CRC Chronology 2014/15 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

NGO Submission to List of Issues to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Periodic Report of Switzerland on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

>>> Download as PDF (826 kb)

Compiled by:

Child Rights Network Switzerland
Paragraph
on Intersex:
Zwischengeschlecht.org

Submitted 4 December 2014.
This submission's para on IGMs refers to the Thematic NGO Submission re: LoI (5 Dec 2014).
The Review of Switzerland will be on  January 21st–22nd 2015 in Geneva. In advance, Zwischengeschlecht.org is invited to brief the Committee on IGMs on the global scale.

>>> Chrolonogy

The entry on Intersex Genital Mutilations on p. 10 of the NGO Report:

Important issues that are not part of the List of Issues:

Intersex genital mutilation

Update: Since the NGO Report submitted by Child Rights Network Switzerland highlighted non-consensual, unnecessary genital surgeries on intersex children justified by psychosocial indications, eight more UN bodies including UNICEF have criticised such surgeries, and, in accordance with the Joint general recommendation on harmful practices, have called for legal review, access to remedies, collection of data and monitoring. Nonetheless, the Swiss government refuses to take action, and non-consensual intersex childhood surgeries continue unchecked and with factual impunity. Swiss intersex organisations stress adverse effects of the silence of the Committee regarding the obligation of Switzerland to protect intersex children, as well as doctors construing silence as encouragement to continue with unnecessary surgeries (see NGO submission by Zwischengeschlecht et al.).
Question:
We recommend that the Committee ask the State Party delegation whether it will initiate a legal review, data collection, monitoring and disinterested research, in consultation with intersex people and their organisations, and if this is not the case, why it is not planning any activities.

>>> CRC Chronology 2014/15 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

Saturday 6 December 2014

Thematic Intersex NGO Submission CRC LoI 2014

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

>>> CRC Chronology 2014/15 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

NGO Submission to List of Issues to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Periodic Report of Switzerland on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

>>> Download as PDF (166 kb)

Compiled by:
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org
Endorsed by:
Intersex.ch, SI Selbsthilfe Intersexualität,
Terre des Femmes Switzerland

Submitted on 5 December 2014.
This submission elaborates on the para on IGMs in the Collective NGO Submission re: LoI, submitted 4 December 2014.
The Review of Switzerland will be on  January 21st–22nd 2015 in Geneva. In advance, Zwischengeschlecht.org is invited to brief the Committee regarding IGMs on the global scale.

>>> CRC Chronology 2014/15 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

Tuesday 21 October 2014

Shadow Report CAT 2014 USA

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

[Shadow Report to the 3rd, 4th and 5th Periodic Report of the Unites States of America on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)]

>>> Download as PDF (135 kb)

  
Compiled by:
Advocates for informed Choice (AIC)

The 53rd Session of the Committee against Torture (CAT) took place on November 3rd – 28th 2014. The Concluding Observations did not mention Intersex. 

Monday 20 October 2014

Shadow Report CAT 2014 Australia

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

[Shadow Report to the 4th and 5th Periodic Report of Australia on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)]

>>> Download as PDF (475 kb)

Compiled by:
OII Australia
Endorsed by:
AISSGA, People with Disabilities,
National LGBTI Health Alliance

The 53rd Session of the Committee against Torture (CAT) took place on November 3rd – 28th 2014. The Concluding Observations (PDF) did not mention Intersex. 

Thursday 28 August 2014

Thematic Intersex NGO Report CCPR 2014

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

NGO Report for List of Issues Prior to Reporting (LoIPR) for the 4th Periodic Report of Switzerland on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR)

>>> Download as PDF (1.66 MB)

Compiled by:
Zwischengeschlecht.org / StopIGM.org,
Intersex.ch, SI Selbsthilfe Intersexualität

CCPR Chronology 2014–ongoing:
Thematic NGO Report by Zwischengeschlecht.org for LOIPR (see above)
>>> List of Issues Prior to Reporting including questions on intersex (para 22) (25.11.2014)

Tuesday 18 March 2014

Collective NGO Report CRC 2014

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

>>> CRC Chronology 2014/15 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

NGO Report to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Periodic Report of Switzerland on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

>>> Download as PDF (2.4 MB)

Compiled by:

Child Rights Network Switzerland
Entry on Intersex:
Zwischengeschlecht.org

Submitted in March 2014.
The Pre-Session on Switzerland will be in June 2014, the Review in January 2015.
>>> Chrolonogy 

The entry on Intersex Genital Mutilations on p. 25–26 of the NGO Report:

4.6 Protection against abuse: Genital mutilation

Assessment by the Child Rights Network Switzerland

[Intersex Genital Mutilations]

Since 1950, children with atypical sex anatomies (intersex, DSD, hermaphrodites) are systematically subjected to irreversible, medically unnecessary interventions in an attempt to fix their sex. Such interventions include cosmetic genital surgery, castration, sterilisation and hormone treatment. Swiss clinics were significantly involved in the global propagation of “genital correction surgeries”. As female sex organs are surgically easier to shape than male organs, most children were made into girls, often by amputating their “enlarged” clitoris. Parents were misinformed, kept in the dark and received no appropriate support. Treatment of such nature leads to serious physical and psychological complications. For the last 20 years, victims and NGOs have been criticising these interventions as a massive violation of human rights, including the right to physical integrity, denouncing them as “intersex genital mutilation”. The UN-Committees CEDAW and CAT, the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (SRT), the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), the Council of Europe (COE) and the National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics (NEK) criticise these interventions as a violation of human rights and demand legislative measures (NEK, SRT, COE), historical reappraisal, acknowledgement by society of suffering inflicted (NEK) and compensation for victims (NEK, CAT).

The Child Rights Network Switzerland recommends that the Committee oblige Switzerland:

–– to implement the full range of recommendations by the National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics “On the management of differences of sex development” (intersex, DSD), to consider legislative measures banning cosmetic genital surgery on intersex children, to conduct a historical appraisal of the human rights violations inflicted on intersex children and youth in society, and to compensate victims in an appropriate manner;

(Unfortunately, all the subheaders in the section on mutilation were 'lost in translation.')

In addition, Zwischengeschlecht.org successfully requested that on p. 15 of the report (regarding Discrimination) "Intersex" was not only mentioned in the assessment, but the "I" also added in the subheading and in the recommendations. ;-) Thanks!

>>> CRC Chronology 2014/15 + Thematic Swiss NGO Report on IGMs

Saturday 25 August 2012

Shadow Report UPR 2012

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

>>> Fact Sheet "Western Genital Mutilation" (PDF, 75 kb)  

Swiss NGO Coalition's Submission to the 14th Universal Periodic Review (UPR) 2012 of Switzerland, April 2012

>>> Download as PDF (229 kb)

Compiled by:

Swiss NGO Coalition for the UPR
Entry on Intersex:
Zwischengeschlecht.org

Submitted by a Coalition of 47 Swiss NGOs in April 2012 for the forthcoming 14th UPR of Switzerland by the Human Rights Council in October 2012.
Chronology:
The Review was on Monday, October 29th 09:00-12:30h;
the Adoption of the Report on Wednesday, October 31st 10:00-11:30h.
The UNHRC did not discuss human rights violations of intersex people in its Session, and didn't mention intersex in their Recommendations.

The entry on Intersex Genital Mutilation on p. 9 of the shadow report:

18. Cosmetic genital surgery performed on children

About 1 child in 1000 is born with “inconclusive“ physical sexual characteristics (hermaphrodism, intersex, disorders of sex development). Such children are very frequently operated on “for cosmetic reasons” at a baby age. Those affected often see these operations as unwanted surgery without medical necessity and evidence. Furthermore, such interventions represent an infringement to the right to physical integrity and self-determination.

Recommendation

Switzerland should establish a commission to deal with the issues of those affected by the consequences of cosmetic genital surgery in an unbiased and fair manner.

>>> Fact Sheet "Western Genital Mutilation" (PDF, 75 kb) 
>>>
UNHRC Hearing Re: Intersex Genital Mutilations, October 29, 2012

Sunday 2 October 2011

Shadow Report CAT 2011

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

>>> Concluding Observations (PDF) (--> para 20, p. 6-7)

Shadow Report to the 5th Periodic Report of the Federal Republic of
Germany on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)

>>> Download as PDF (419 kb)

Compiled by:

Intersexuelle Menschen e.V. / XY-Frauen
Humboldt Law Clinic: Grund- und Menschenrechte
Association of Intersexed People / XY-Women
Humboldt Law Clinic: Human Rights

Note: Despite the fact that still not all genital mutilations are properly listed (especially the 'masculinising' ones were mostly left out), this Shadow Report is the most comprehensive yet. On November 4th 2011, the 74th Session of The Committee Against Torture (CAT) also reached the most clear-cut Concluding Observations yet, demanding a.o. that Germany should

"Undertake investigation of incidents of surgical and other medical treatment of intersex people without effective consent and adopt legal provisions in order to provide redress to the victims of such treatment, including adequate compensation."

>>> UN-Pressrelease Nov 4 2011

>>> Concluding Observations (PDF) (--> para 20, p. 6-7)

Tuesday 26 July 2011

Shadow Report CEDAW 2011

>>> deutsch      >>> http://intersex.schattenbericht.org

Shadow Report to the 5th and 6th National Report of the the Republic of Costa Rica on the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 27.06.2011

>>> Download as PDF (238 kb)

Compiled by:
IGLHRC
MULABI
Natasha Jiménez

This Shadow Report was considered by the 49th Session of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in New York, July 11-29 2011.

The entry on Intersex Genital Mutilation on p. 8-11 of the shadow report:

Intersex People (9) and the Right to Health:

An intersex condition is much more common than most people are aware. For instance, 1.7% of the world population is intersex; 1 of every 200 births is of an intersex person; and there are as many intersex people in the world as people with red hair. (10) The typical medical response to an intersex condition is medical intervention. Yet, sex assignment surgeries performed in intersex persons create feelings of betrayal, mistrust and depression. (11)

In the past, the prevailing opinion in medical circles was that it was best to assign a sex to an intersex child as soon as possible, often on the basis of the child’s external genitalia and not even related to their chromosomal make-up. Parents were instructed that there should be no ambiguity in their minds about their child’s sex. Surgery was quickly scheduled to extirpate the testicular or ovarian tissue of the “undesirable” sex with irreparable consequences in relation to reproductive capacity.

The aim of surgery was allegedly to normalize the genitals and prevent suffering later in life because of lack of conformity with binary sexual standards.

As a general rule, female genitals were considered more easily “rebuildable” than functional male ones, so whenever the “right” choice was not evident, a child was assigned to the female sex.

Most intersex children in Cost Rica undergo surgical intervention before reaching two years of age. The most common manifestation of intersexuality treated at the Hospital Nacional de Niños (National Children’s Hospital) is congenital adrenal hyperplasia, detected through tests performed four days after a baby is born. 12 But in spite of the good intentions of the interdisciplinary team of the National Children’s Hospital, intersex persons suffer as a result of the scars and insensitivity produced by surgery (among other consequences)

In 2006, the American National Academy of Paediatrics recommended that sex assignment surgeries cease to be performed on intersex children.
Yet the Assistant Director of the National Children’s Hospital stated in an interview with newspaper Al Día that the notion that intersex persons could choose their gender and sex when reaching adolescence was inaccurate and solely promoted by extremists. (13) Mulabi / Latin American Space for Sexualities and Rights, the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission and others are concerned that the hospital has disregarded the recommendation of the national authority on pediatric care and is performing discredited surgeries. Furthermore, these organizations argue for the right to self-determine one's own body and for the need to stop the practice of surgeries that attempt to “normalize” bodies, particularly on children who cannot consent, based on subjective criteria.

Though experts the National Children’s Hospital report that five to ten children per year are born with genital ambiguity, there are few documented cases. However the Urology Journal of San Juan de Dios Hospital, reported the account of 16 year old boy with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (one of many manifestations of intersexuality). Doctors wanted to perform a bilateral orchidectomy (the surgical removal of both testicles) on him and then insert a prosthesis but the boy himself and his family did not allow the procedure. (14)

This kind of interventions for the sole purpose of conforming the bodies of intersex people to social standards of gender binary, and their implications for the reproductive, psychological and physical integrity are a clear violation of Article 12 of the convention.

(9) Intersex Persons: Some babies are born with genitalia and reproductive organs that do not fit with the patterns culturally accepted as defining “female” or “male” anatomy. The older term for this disease –hermaphroditism‐ blends together the names of a Greek god and goddess, Hermes and Aphrodite. Hermes was the god of male sexuality (among other things) and Aphrodite the goddess of sexuality, love and female beauty.
(10) Fausto‐Sterling, Anne (2000) Sexing the body: gender politics and the construction of sexuality. Basic Books. NewYork.
(11) Cabral, Mauro (2009) Interdicciones
(12) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia refers to a group of hereditary disorders affecting the adrenal glands. Congenital suprarenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. People suffering this condition lack an enzyme required by the suprarenal gland to produce the cortisol and aldosterone hormones. Without these hormones, the body produces more androgens, a type of male sexual hormone, causing the early (or inappropriate) onset of male characteristics. About 1 of every 10,000‐18,000 children are born with congenital suprarenal hyperplasia.
(13) Interviewed by journalist Franklin Arroyo, from newspaper Al Día. (http://www.mentesana.net/tag/genitalidad‐ambigua/)
(14) Urology Journal at BINASS (Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social) http://www.binasss.sa.cr/revistas/rmcc/563/art11.htm

The recommendation Re: Intersex Genital Mutilation on p. 13 of the shadow report:

That corrective or sex assignment surgeries cease to be the preferred option for treating intersex children at the National Children’s Hospital, and that the parents of these children are supported by specific counselling and orientation groups that will provide them with the necessary tools to deal with this situation in the best way possible, always having the best interests of the intersex person as a guiding principle. One way to achieve this is by implementing a care policy for the intersex population that will allow them to decide in the future the best way to be followed because it is their lives that are being affected.

Note: Unfortunately, in its >>> Concluding Observations (PDF, 68 kb) the Committee only mentioned intersex once, and as a "tail light" to LBT, furthermore criticising "abuse and mistreatment by health service providers" and calling for "appropriate training" to "health service providers, in order to avoid abuse and mistreatment of these women" (CEDAW/C/CRI/CO/5-6, see p. 9 para 40-41).

In September 2012, the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) referenced para 40 in its publication >>> "Born free and equal" (PDF 1.7 mb) with regards to the the following statement:

Statement by OHCHR Re: Intersex Genital Mutilation in "Born Free and Equal", p. 51:

"In addition, intersex children, who are born with atypical sex characteristics, are often subjected to discrimination and medically unnecessary surgery, performed without their informed consent, or that of their parents, in an attempt to fix their sex."

>>> OHCHR: "Born free and equal" (HR/PUB/12/06, PDF 1.7 mb)

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