Executive Summary . . . 3

Introduction . . . 6

A. What is Intersex? . . . 7
1. Variations of Sex Anatomy . . . 7
2. Everybody started out as a Hermaphrodite – until the 7th Week of Pregnancy . . . 8
3. Genital Development and Appearance . . . 10
4. How common is Intersex? . . . 10
5. Intersex is NOT THE SAME as LGBT . . . 11
6. Terminology . . . 12

B. IGMs / Non-Consensual, Unnecessary Medical Interventions . . . . 13
1. What are Intersex Genital Mutilations (IGMs)? . . . 13
2. Most Frequent Surgical and Other Harmful Medical Interventions . . . 14
    a) Clitoris Amputation/“Reduction”, “Vaginoplasty”, Forced Vaginal Dilation . . . 14
    b) Hypospadias “Repair” . . . 15
    c) Castrations / “Gonadectomies” / Hysterectomies / (Secondary) Sterilisation . . . 16
    d) Systematic Misinformation, “Code of Silence”, Lack of Informed Consent . . . 17
    e) Other Unnecessary and Harmful Medical Interventions and Treatments . . . 17
3. How Common are Intersex Genital Mutilations? . . . 17
4. Lack of Disinterested Review, Analysis, Outcome Studies and Research . . . 19
5. Lack of Independent Data Collection and Monitoring . . . 20
6. Urgent Need for Legislation to Ensure an End to IGMs . . . 20

C. Civil Registration . . . 20

D. The Treatment of Intersex Persons in Switzerland
as a Violation of International Law . . . 21

1. Switzerland’s Commitment to the Protection of the Rights of the Child . . . 22
2. Violated Articles of the Convention . . . 22
    Article 2: Non-Discrimination . . . 22
    Article 3: Best Interest of the Child . . . . 22
    Article 6: Children’s Right to Life and Maximum Survival and Development . . . . . . . . . 23
    Article 8: Preservation of Identity . . . 23
    Article 12: Respect for the Views of the Child . . . 23
    Article 16: Child’s Right to Privacy . . . 24
    Article 23: Rights of Children with Disability . . . 24
    Article 24: Child’s Right to Health and Health Services . . . 24
    Article 19: Child’s Right to Protection from All Forms of Violence,
    Article 34: Protection from All Forms of Sexual Exploitation of Children,
    Article 36: Protection from Other Forms of Exploitation . . . 25
    Article 37: Protection from Torture or other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment . . . 25

E. Conclusion . . . 26

F. Recommendations . . . 27

Bibliography . . . 28
1. International Bodies Recognising Human Rights Violations of Intersex Children . . . 28
2. State Bodies Recognising Human Rights Violations of Intersex Children . . . 30
3. National Ethics Bodies Recognising Human Rights Violations of Intersex Children . . . 30
4. NGO, NHRI Reports on Human Rights Violations of Intersex Children . . . 30
5. Swiss Government Documents . . . 31

Annexe 1 “Case Studies” . . . 32
Case No. 1 . . . 32
Case No. 2 . . . 33
Case No. 3 . . . 36
Case No. 4 . . . 38
Case No. 5 . . . 40
Case No. 6 . . . 41

Annexe 2 “Swiss Cantonal, Federal Governments, and Clinics on IGMs” . . . 43
a) Cantonal Answers to Four Parliamentary Questions (2009–2010) . . . 43
b) Public Declarations by Doctors of Cantonal Children’s Clinics (2010–2012) . . . 44
c) Federal Answers to Three Parliamentary Questions (National Council, 2011–2012) . . . 45

Supplement 1 “IGM – Historical Overview” . . . 49
Hermaphrodites in the “Developed World”: From Legal Self-Determination to IGM
1. Middle Ages: Legal Recognition vs. Infanticide . . . 49
2. Modern Age: Medical Takeover and Erasure . . . 49
    1763: Call for early “Cutting” of “perversely enlarged” Clitorises . . . 49
    1800s–Today: Clitoris Amputations/“Reductions” on Children in Western Medicine . . . 50
    1800s: “Pseudo Hermaphrodites” vs. “True Hermaphrodites” – Cultural Invisibility . . . 50
    1900: End of Legal Self-Determination for Hermaphrodites in Europe . . . 50
3. 20th Century: From Experimentation to Global Medical Extermination . . . 51
    1900-1950: Basic Research – Genital Surgery, Hormones, Genetics/Eugenics . . . 51
    1920-1950s: Racist Diagnosis “Intersexual Constitution”,
    Hermaphrodites selected for Mengele . . . 52
    1950–Today: Medical Extermination by Systematic Early “Genital Corrections” . . . 53
    Baltimore and Zurich 1950: From Experimentation to Medical Extermination . . . 54
    1954-Today: “Prader Scale” as Global Reference for Systematic Clitoris Amputations . . . 56
    1955-1993: “No Evidence for Loss of Orgasm after Clitoris Amputation, just like FGM” . . 57
    1960s: 1st Genetics Boom . . . 58
    1970s: 1st Hypospadias “Repair” Boom . . . 58
    1993–Today: “Immensely destructive of sexual sensation” – IGM Survivors Speak Out . . 59
    1993–Today: Doctors claim, “Surgery is better now” . . . 59
    1990s–Today: 2nd Hypospadias “Repair” Boom . . . 59
    1998: Call for a Moratorium until Evidence of Benefits for Persons Concerned . . . 60
4. 21st Century: “DSD” Nomenclature Shift – IGMs persist . . . 61
    2005: Medical Nomenclature Shift from “Intersex Disorders” to “DSD” . . . 61
    2000s–Today: Doctors claim, “Most IGMs Not Really Intersex Surgeries” . . . 62
    2000s–Today: 2nd Genetics Boom . . . 62
    2010s: Criticism by Human Rights Bodies – IGMs persist . . . 62

Supplement 2 “The 17 Most Common Forms of IGMs” . . . 63
a) Clitoris Amputation/“Reduction”/“Recession”  . . . 63
b) Hypospadias “Repair” . . . 65
c) Castrations / “Gonadectomies” / Hysterectomies / (Secondary) Sterilisation . . . 67
d) “Vaginoplasty”, Construction of Artificial “Neo Vagina” . . . 69
e) Forced Vaginal Dilation . . . 69
f) Forced Mastectomy . . . 70
g) Surgical Transfixation of Undescended Testes . . . 70
h) Imposition of Hormones . . . 70
i) Misinformation and Directive Counselling for Parents . . . 70
j) Taking Advantage of the Powerlessness and Vulnerability of Intersex Infants . . . 72
k) Systematic Lies and Imposition of “Code of Silence” on Children . . . 72
l) Forced Excessive Genital Exams, Medical Display and (Genital) Photography . . . 73
m) Human Experimentation on Intersex Children . . . 74
n) Denial of Needed Health Care . . . 75
o) Prenatal “Therapy” . . . 75
p) Selective Abortion, Selective Late Term Abortion . . . 76
q) Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) to Eliminate Intersex Fetuses . . . 76

Supplement 3 “Medical Textbooks” . . . 77
1. “Hypospadias Repair” a.k.a. “Masculinising Surgeries” . . . 77
2. “Clitoral Reduction”, “Vaginoplasty” a.k.a. “Feminising Surgeries” . . . 78
3. Castration / “Gonadectomy” / Hysterectomy / (Secondary) Sterilisation . . . 79
4. Historical Examples . . . 81–87

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